Chemical extraction and gastrointestinal digestion of honey: influence on its antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities

  1. Marta Alevia 1
  2. Sandra Rasines 1
  3. Leire Cantero 1
  4. M. Teresa Sancho 1
  5. Miguel A. Fernández-Muiño 1
  6. Sandra M. Osés 1
  1. 1 Universidad de Burgos

    Universidad de Burgos

    Burgos, España



ISSN: 2304-8158

Year of publication: 2021

Volume: 10

Issue: 6

Pages: 1-16

Type: Article



The effect of chemical extraction and in vitro digestion of different kinds of honey on bioactive compounds (total phenolic compounds and flavonoids) and biological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory) was investigated. The antioxidant activity was evaluated against three radicals (ABTS•+, ROO•, •OH), and the antimicrobial activity was studied against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomona aeruginosa) and one yeast (Candida albicans). The results show that in comparison with raw honeys, the methanolic extracts exhibited lower values for phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity and higher anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities against L. monocytogenes. The higher anti-inflammatory activity indicates a possible use of dried honey extracts in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The digested honeys showed higher total phenolics and higher antioxidant activity than the pre-digested honeys, as well as higher antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, which underlines the possible antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of honey in the human body after the digestion process.